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Colonial Literature (111006)

* Island => is land (X)
* Key West => 美國國境之南 (Florida)
=> St. Augustine => 北美第一所學校
* Kansas => tornado => The Wonderful Wizard of OZ

* Angry God (Jonathan Edwards 1741) (講義 p.166)
=> Nathaniel Hawthorne (p.170)
=> witchcraft (Witch trial)=> historical guilt
=> consequence
★ the relation between good and evil-between sanctity and paganism
★ the embrace between life in death and death in life
★ inherited guilt and traditional curses
★ the ravages of moral decay
★ the impermanence of beauty in a dark and alien world

(講義 p.165)
* Anglo-Saxon => 主流政治菁英族群
* Southern colonies: were established by Europeans during the 16th and 17th centuries.
=> 騎馬漫步在savannas (河旁大草原)
* across the sea => Atlantic Ocean
=> Pacific Ocean => pacifier 安撫奶嘴

* metaphysical poets => theology
* Calvinism 喀爾文教派
=> John Calvin => 選民論、pre-destiny 命定論
=> theocracy  => the- = God
 Manifest Destiny the 19th century American belief that the United States was destined to expand across the continent.
=> man- = hand
=> manuscript 手稿
=> manual 手冊
=> manpulate 操作
* expansion 擴張
=> promote and defend
=> justify
=> 冒險、政客、宗教
=> meditation 神的冥想

The Revolutionary Period
* The Founding Fathers  
=> The Declaration of Independence (Thomas Jefferson)
=> Thomas Paine: Common Sense
=> 管得最少的政府是最好的政府
=> Senator 參議員 (The Senate)
=> Representatives 眾議員 (House of Representatives)
=> congressman 國會議員
=> Electoral College => 過半
=> State + Federal => tax

* (p.166)We hold these truths to be self-evident: 
★ That all men are created equal
★ That they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights
★ That among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
* abolish 廢止; 廢除 => ab- = 反
=> abnormal
=> aboriginal
★ principle: a law or rule that has to be, or usually is to be followed, or can be desirably followed, or is an inevitable consequence of something.

* C.E. 17 英國代表人物 => Benjamin Franklin
=> autobiography
=> Poor Richard's Almanack 農民曆

* Thomas Paine
=> reflections on the French => Paine lived in France for most of the 1790s, becoming deeply involved in the French Revolution.
=> Rights of Man => in part a defense of the French Revolution against its critics.

* Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay
=> The Federalist

=> Federalist Papers 聯邦論

* interpret the law
=> we sentence the defendant to death make enforce
checks and balances => 三權分立
* Jury
=> Have the jury reached the verdict we found the defendant guilty



*pass/fail the bill 通過/否決提案
=> ratify => 行政批評憲法修正案
=> veto 拒絕; 否決
=> impeachment 彈劾

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